The ocean is a water body that comprises most of the hydrosphere of the world. Each ocean is a part of the ‘ World ocean’ where world ocean refers to the interlinked system of all the water of the ocean in the world. The ocean covers 71% of the earth’s surface area and 97% of the earth’s water. Extraterrestrial bodies may be composed of another element except for water. There are many ridges under the ocean which are interconnected among themselves and they form the mid-oceanic ridge system. Oceans are also divided among various zones like the pelagic zone, photo zones, hadalpelagic zone,bathypelagic zone, etc. There are a total of 5 oceans in the world and here is the description of these oceans:-
This lies between the Southern Ocean and the Arctic ocean and is the world’s largest and deepest ocean. It covers a surface area of 165,250,000 km sq. and has a depth of 4,280 meters. Pacific ocean has a tropical and subtropical climate as it lies in low latitudes. This ocean has a maximum number of island and there are mainly three groups of oceans-Micronesia, Melanesia and Polynesia. Micronesia is the region of the ocean which is the northside of the equator and west of the International dateline. Micronesia has Mariana Island, Caroline Island which is in the center, Marshall Islands and Kiribati island. Melanesia lies in the southwest and has the second-largest island of the world in its region. It also has Bismarck archipelago, The Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz, Vanuatu, Fiji, and New Caledonia. The largest region of the Pacific ocean is Polynesia and has many island-like Tuvalu, Tokelau, Tonga, etc.
It is an S-shaped ocean that lies between America in the west, Africa and Europe on the east and Arctic ocean in the south with a surface area of 106,460,000 km sq and is the second-largest ocean in the world. It has a depth of 8,376 meter and has 310,410,900 km cube volume of water. The African side oceanic crust of the Atlantic ocean is the oldest crust and is 145 million years old. It is situated on the west coast of Africa. In many regions of this ocean, the continental shelf and continental slope has a thick layer of sediments on it like there is a layer of large carbonate deposits on the American side. Atlantic oceans is one of the world’s most richest fishing resources. Bahama Bank, Scotian shelf, waters of Iceland etc are productive areas of fishing.
It is named after India since 1515 and it also has a greek name which is ‘Region of Indus river. It is surrounded by Asia, Africa, and Australia and has an area of 70,560,000 km sq with a maximum depth of 7,258 meters and a maximum width of 7600 km. It covers 19.5% of the world’s ocean. It is the third-largest ocean in the world. It has a moderately warm climate, the southern region of the equator gains heat during the months of June to October and loses heat from November and March. It has a temperature of 28 degrees Celsius or higher near the equator. Almost two billion people live in countries that have their borderline in Indian oceans and India, Indonesia and Australia are the longest shorelines in the Indian oceans. The continental slopes of this oceans has terrigenous sediments and 40% of it is in Ganga and Indus fans. Suez Canal in Egypt and strait of malacca which flows between Indonesia and Malaysia are two famous waterways of the Indian Ocean.
It is also called Antarctic ocean as it surrounds the Antarctic and is the southernmost region of the World’s oceans. It has an area of 20.33 million km sq with many is islands such as Wednesday island, Trinity island, etc. It originated around 30 million years ago when the Antarctic moved away from America. The temperature is about 2-10 degrees celsius and the ocean is at 40 latitudes in the south and has the strongest average winds. It has a huge diversity of animals like penguins, Blue whale, Orcas, Colossal squids, fur seals, This place also has Emperor Penguin which breeds in winter, birds like snailfish, cod icefish, eelpout, crocodile fish which is also known as white blooded fish are also found here. Mammals such as Antarctic fur seal, Weddle seal, Ross seal, Antarctic krill etc are found.
It is the smallest and the northmost oceans in the world and covers the area of 6.1 million square miles with the average depth is 1,038 meter. Its coastline has a length of 45,390 km. This ocean includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Greenland Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea and other tributary bodies of water. It is interlinked to the Pacific Ocean through the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea and the Labrador Sea. Almost 4 million people live in the Arctic region and sometimes all the people have to depend on fishing, whaling, etc. Animals like Walrus, Polar bears, Bowhead whales. The top layer of the water of the ocean(about 50 meters) has low salinity than the rest of the water and also has a lower temperature. It gets it freshwater from Siberia and Canadian streams. Most of it is ice but it is melting since 1980 at the rate of 3% per decade.