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Types Of Oceans In The World

Types Of Oceans In The World
Image Credits - Google Images

The ocean is a water body that comprises most of the hydrosphere of Earth. Each ocean is a part of the ‘ World ocean’ where it refers to the interlinked system of the ocean world in the world. The ocean covers 71%  of the earth’s surface area and 97% of the earth’s water. Extraterrestrial bodies may be composed of another element except for water. There are many ridges under the ocean which are interconnected among themselves and they form the mid-oceanic ridge system. Oceans are also divided among various zones like the pelagic zone, photo zones, hadalpelagic zone, bathypelagic zone, etc. There are a total of 5 oceans in the world and here is the description of these oceans.

Pacific Ocean

Pacific Ocean
Image Credits – freeworldmaps.net

This lies between the Southern Ocean and the Arctic ocean and is the world’s largest and deepest ocean. It covers a surface area of 165,250,000 km sq. and has a depth of 4,280 meters. Pacific ocean has a tropical and subtropical climate as it lies in low latitudes. This ocean has a maximum number of island and they are divided into three groups: Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia. Micronesia lies towards the northside of the equator and west of the International Date Line. Micronesia has Mariana Island, Caroline Island, Marshall Islands, and Kiribati island. Melanesia lies in the southwest and has the second-largest island of the world in its region, New Guinea. It also has the Bismarck Archipelago, The Solomon Islands, Santa Cruz, Vanuatu, Fiji, and New Caledonia. The largest area of the Pacific ocean is Polynesia and has many island-like Tuvalu, Tokelau, Tonga, etc.

Atlantic Ocean

Atlantic Ocean
Image Credits – freeworldmaps.net

It is an S-shaped ocean that lies between America in the west, Africa and Europe on the east and Arctic ocean in the south with a surface area of 106,460,000 km sq. It is the second-largest ocean in the world. It has a depth of 8,376 meters. The African side oceanic crust of the Atlantic ocean is the oldest crust and is 145 million years old. It is situated on the west coast of Africa. In many regions of this ocean, the continental shelf and continental slope have a thick layer of sediments on it like there is a layer of large carbonate deposits on the American side. Atlantic ocean is one of the world’s richest fishing resources. The Bahama Banks, the Scotian Shelf, the waters around Iceland, etc. are productive areas of fishing.

Indian Ocean

Indian Ocean
Image Credits – phys.org

It is named after India since 1515 and it also has a greek name which is ‘Region of Indus river. It is surrounded by Asia, Africa, and Australia and has an area of 70,560,000 km sq with a maximum depth of 7,258 meters. It covers 19.5% of the world’s ocean. It is the third-largest ocean in the world. It has a moderately warm climate, the southern region of the equator gains heat during the months of June to October and loses heat from November and March. It has a temperature of 28 degrees Celsius or higher near the equator. Almost two billion people live in countries that have their borderline in Indian oceans and India. Indonesia and Australia are the longest shorelines in the Indian oceans. The continental slopes of this oceans have terrigenous sediments in Ganga and Indus regions. Suez Canal in Egypt and Strait of Malacca which flows between Indonesia and Malaysia are two famous waterways in the Indian Ocean.

Southern Ocean

Southern Ocean
Image Credits – Google Images

It is also called Antarctic ocean as it surrounds Antarctica and is the southernmost region of the World’s oceans. It has an area of 20.33 million km sq. It consists of islands like Wednesday island, Trinity island, etc. It originated around 30 million years ago when the Antarctic moved away from South America. The temperature is about 2-10 degrees celsius and the ocean is at 60 latitudes in the south and has the strongest average winds. It has a huge diversity of animals like penguins, blue whale, orcas, Colossal squids, fur seals. This place also has Emperor Penguin which breeds during winter, snailfish, cod icefish, eelpout, crocodile icefish, also known as white blooded fish. Mammals such as Antarctic fur seal, Weddle seal, Ross seal, etc. are found.

Arctic Ocean

Arctic Ocean
Image Credits – Google Images

It is the smallest and the northmost oceans in the world. It covers the area of 14,056,000 km sq with an average depth of 1,038 meters. Its coastline has a length of 45,390 km. This ocean includes Baffin Bay, Barents Sea, Hudson Bay, Hudson Strait, Beaufort Sea, Chukchi Sea, East Siberian Sea, Laptev Sea, White Sea, etc., and other tributary water bodies. It is interlinked to the Pacific Ocean through the Bering Strait and to the Atlantic Ocean through the Greenland Sea and the Labrador Sea. Almost 4 million people live in the Arctic region and sometimes all the people have to depend on fishing, whaling, etc. The top layer of the ocean (about 50 meters) has low salinity than the rest of the water and a lower temperature. It gets it freshwater from Siberia and Canadian streams. Most of its ice is melting since 1980 at the rate of 3% per decade.

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Written by Palak Gupta

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